J Neurosci Res. 2003 Mar 1;71(5):740-50. Links
Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promotes the transmigration of monocytes through human brain endothelial cells.MacIntyre A, Abramov R, Hammond CJ, Hudson AP, Arking EJ, Little CS, Appelt DM, Balin BJ.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
I am very excited to present the following article that summarizes Dr. Stratton's recent observations on Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Putting it together has contributed greatly to my own understanding of Cpn as well as to my appreciation of Dr. Stratton's generosity with his time, and his great depth of knowledge of this area. Thanks to him for his contribution.
Jim KRecent observations by Dr
Recent observations by Dr. Charles Stratton on Chlamydia Pneumoniae (Cpn) Infection
J Med Microbiol. 2006 Jul;55(Pt 7):947-52.
Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of microglial cells in vitro: a model of microbial infection for neurological disease.
Ikejima H, Friedman H, Yamamoto Y.
1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.
Chlamydia pneumoniae is the aetiological cause of a wide variety of chronic inflammatory diseases and may be associated with neurological disease. Microbiological and immunological aspects of the interaction between C. pneumoniae and the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood because of the lack of a suitable infection model for neuronal studies. In the present study, an in vitro C. pneumoniae infection model was developed in the established microglial cell line EOC 20. Infection of the cells resulted in obvious induction of proinflammatory cytokines. The infection also selectively induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) but not MMP-2. Moreover, beta interferon, which is known to modulate CNS disease, inhibited induction of MMP-9 following C. pneumoniae infection. These results support the view that C. pneumoniae infection may be associated with marked alteration of the ability of microglial cells to enhance cytokine production as well as induction of an MMP.
I have culled from Mitchell & Stratton patent #6,884,784 an exhaustive list of diseases where Cpn has been implicated as a possible cause or co-factor (reference: Mitchell & Stratton patent #6,884,784):
Diseases where an association has been discovered between chronic Chlamydia infection of body fluids and/or tissues with several disease syndromes of previously unknown etiology in humans which respond to unique antichlamydial regimens include:
Editorial comment: Strong findings from their research. If you have any of these it suggests to me that at least an empirical course of the combination antibiotic therapy is strongly indicated, with or without serology.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
Interstitial Cystitis (IC)
Autonomic nervous dysfunction (AND neural-mediated hypotension);
Pyoderma Gangrenosum (PG)
Chronic Fatigue (CF) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS).
Microbes Infect. 2003 Nov;5(13):1249-53. Related Articles, Links
Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae with central nervous system disease
Stratton CW, Sriram S
Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is now being incriminated in a number of
chronic diseases. The ability of C. pneumoniae to infect and persist in macrophages makes it a likely
candidate to disseminate in a number of different tissues, including those of the central nervous system.
This review addresses the potential and the underlying mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae infections can
play a role in such diverse neurological diseases as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.