Pectin, Fiber and Endotoxin
Just skimming some articles about modified citrus pectin and found this: http://tinyurl.com/27yow9u Been interested in it for chelation purposes but now I find that it can be helpful for endotoxins.
Sickness behavior induced by endotoxin can be mitigated by the dietary soluble fiber, pectin, through up-regulation of IL-4 and Th2 polarization
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Christina L. Sherrya, Stephanie S. Kimb, Ryan N. Dilgerc, Laura L. Bauerc, Morgan L. Moona, Richard I. Tappingd, George C. Fahey Jr.a, c, Kelly A. Tappendena, c, e and Gregory G. Freunda, b, c, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author a Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA b Department of Pathology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA c Department of Animal Science, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA d Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA e Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA Received 12 October 2009; revised 25 January 2010; accepted 26 January 2010. Available online 6 February 2010.
Peripheral activation of the immune system by infectious agents triggers the brain–cytokine system causing sickness behaviors which profoundly impact well-being. Dietary fiber is a beneficial foodstuff that, from a gastrointestinal tract perspective, exists in both insoluble and soluble forms. We show that a diet rich in soluble fiber protects mice from endotoxin-induced sickness behavior by polarizing mice Th2 when compared to a diet containing only insoluble fiber. Mice fed soluble fiber became less sick and recovered faster from endotoxin-induced sickness behaviors than mice fed insoluble fiber. In response to intraperitoneal endotoxin, mice fed soluble fiber had up-regulated IL-1RA and reduced IL-1β and TNF-α in the brain as compared to mice fed insoluble fiber. Importantly, mice fed soluble fiber had a basal increase in IL-4 in the ileum and spleen which was absent in MyD88 knockout mice. Con-A stimulated splenocytes from mice fed soluble fiber showed increased IL-4 and IL-5 and decreased IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ when compared to mice fed insoluble fiber. Likewise, endotoxin-stimulated macrophages from mice fed soluble fiber demonstrated decreased IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12 and nitrate and increased IL-1RA, arginase 1 and Ym1 when compared to mice fed insoluble fiber. Finally, the behavioral protection afforded by feeding mice soluble fiber was reduced in IL-4 knockout mice, as was the impact of soluble fiber on Con-A stimulated splenocytes and endotoxin activated macrophages. These data show that a diet rich in soluble fiber protects against endotoxin-induced sickness behavior by polarizing mice Th2 and promoting alternative activation of macrophages.