Liver Detoxification; available as seen at and
from http://tuberose.com/Liver_Detoxification.html for the full article.
"The liver plays several roles in detoxification: it filters the blood to remove large toxins, synthesizes and secretes bile full of cholesterol and other fat-soluble toxins, and enzymatically disassembles unwanted chemicals. This enzymatic process usually occurs in two steps referred to as phase I and phase II.
Phase I Detoxification - Phase I either directly neutralizes a toxin, or modifies the toxic chemical to form activated intermediates which are then neutralized by one of more of the several phase II enzyme systems.
Phase II Detoxification -This is called the conjugation pathway,
whereby the liver cells add another substance (eg. cysteine, glycine or a sulphur molecule) to a toxic chemical or drug, to render it less harmful. This makes the toxin or drug water-soluble, so it can then be excreted from the body via watery fluids such as bile or urine. Individual xenobiotics and metabolites usually follow one or two distinct pathways.
There are essentially six phase II conjugaton detoxification pathways:
· Glutathione conjugation
· Amino acid conjugation