Secondary Porphyria: what you should know before starting a CAPSecondary Porphyria: what you should know before starting a CAP
Cpn induced secondary porphyria
Treatment of Chlamydia infection may exacerbate pre-existing genetic porphyria or more likely cause a secondary acute porphyria by making the intracellular Chlamydia more active or by killing infected cells that already are loaded with high porphyrin levels. Some of what is mis-labeled as a “herx” reaction to treatment, is actually an acute porphyria reaction and not a reaction to bacterial endotoxin which is what a true herxheimer reaction is referring to.
What is Secondary Porphyria?
Porphyrias are diseases in which the heme pathway has malfunctioned. They can be genetic or be secondary secondary to another disease process. Part of what is so special about the thoroughness with which Dr. Charles Stratton and his colleagues have studied Chalmydial disease is their discovery that Cpn interferes with the heme pathway, and that many patients with chronic Cpn infections have secondary porphyria to start with, and that this is further exacerbated under treatment. When you understand more about porphyria, it can help you sort out "die-off" as well as chronic symptoms you have, which may be due to heme byproducts-- and how to treat for it.Heme is a Fe2+ complex. A number of critical cellular functions rely on it and the biosynthesis of heme occurs in all human cells. Toxic compounds called porphyrinogens are formed in one transitional phase of the heme biosynthesis pathway but under normal circumstances are quickly transformed into heme which is not toxic.The porphyrias are consequences of any impairment of the formation of porphyrinogens or in their transformation to heme. Chlamydiae interfere with this step. Porphyrins then accumulate in the cell itself, and then in the extracellular milieu. Within the mitochondrial matrix, the final steps in the biosynthesis of heme are halted. Depletion of host cell energy by the intracellular infection with Chlamydia species causes additional energy-related complications.Highly simplified, heme synthesis should look like this:
Heme precursors >> porphrinogens>> transformation to heme >> increased cellular transport including ATP production.
Instead, Cpn interferes with this normal process, and this happens:
Heme precursors >> porphrinogens >> interference with transformation to heme >> build up of unstable heme precursors and porphyrins inside and outside cells >> free radical damage and reduced ATP (energy) synthesis.
Symptoms of Porphyria-
Porphyria may affect the nervous system or the skin.When porphyria affects the nervous system, it can cause:
- chest pain
- shortness of breath
- abdominal pain
- muscle cramps
When porphyria affects the skin it can cause:
- sensitivity to the sun (which also can be caused by some antibiotics)
- purple-red-colored urine
Stratton's protocol suggests testing for porphyrins prior to treatment, and initiating nutritional and other interventions prior to starting treatment for Cpn to help prevent or limit secondary porphyria.
"Systemic/chronic chlamydial infections have been noted to have an associated secondary porphyria. Porphyrins, including water-soluble porphyrins (e.g., delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphyrobilinogen) and fat-soluble porphyrins (e.g., coproporphyrin III and protoporphyrin) may produce clinical episodes of porphyria. The presence of such porphyrins in an individual patient with chronic/systemic chlamydial infection can be confirmed pre- and during therapy by appropriate porphyrin tests such as obtaining 24-hour urine and 24-hour stool specimens for porphyrins." (from Stratton & Mitchell's THERAPY OF CHRONIC CHLAMYDIAL INFECTIONS INCLUDING THEIR ASSOCIATED PORPHYRIA AND VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY: SEVENTH VERSION
Two other suggestive indicators of porphyria which don't require the more challenging 24 hour collection of specimens is measuring B-12 deficiency both directly and also from blood elements which are affected by B12 such as serum methyl malonate levels and homocystine levels. However Dr. Stratton notes:
Homocystine levels are elevated with B12 and folate deficiency, but can be reduced by folate alone. On the other hand, serum methyl malonate levels are elevated in B12 deficiency and are not changed by folate. Therefore, serum methyl malonate levels are the best indicator of B12 deficiency.
Another indicator, according to Dr. Stratton, is high hemoglobin and high hematocrit.For those already in treatment, to have a rough idea if treatment is overloading them with porphyrigens Dr. Stratton has noted this "Poor Man's Test" of secondary porphyria:
"Poor Man's" Porphyrin Test According to Chuck Strattoni: If people notice dark urine after taking metronidazolei, have them put their urine in a clear glass container and place it outdoors in the sun for several hours. If the color gets darker (i.e., copper-purple color), then it is due to porphyrins. This is the "poor man's porphyrin test".
Because secondary porphyria is so common in Cpn infections, Dr. Stratton recommends treating for it almost as a matter of course prior to initiating a CAP's, and continuing treatment for it during the whole process of treatment. This involves:Excerpted from: THERAPY OF CHRONIC CHLAMYDIAL INFECTIONS INCLUDING THEIR ASSOCIATED PORPHYRIA AND VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY: SEVENTH VERSIONCharles W. Stratton, MD William M. Mitchell, MD PhD Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Nashville, Tennessee 37232IMPORTANT DISCLAIMER Currently there are protocols for appropriate clinical trials for the therapy of a number of different forms of systemic/chronic chlamydial infections being prepared at Vanderbilt. The preliminary suggestions for chlamydial therapy that are contained within this document have been gleaned from early therapy for compassionate reasons and may not represent the final therapy. The use of these suggestions is similarly for compassionate therapy of patients suspected of having a systemic/chronic chlamydial infection.Patient education begins with an explanation of the clinical significance of the test results and the potential for associated effects such as porphyria and vitamin B12 deficiency. Additional laboratory tests may be useful in defining the extent of the chlamydial infection and associated metabolic/vitamin disorders. Initial blood work can be obtained for the following tests: 1) CBC, 2) liver function tests, 3) uric acid, and 4) serum iron studies. Other useful tests include: red blood cell ALA dehydratase, red blood cell PBG deaminase, vitamin B-12 level, serum homocysteine level, and serum methymalonate level. A 24-hour urine and stool may be collected for porphyrins. Step 2: Next, the patient is placed on the antiporphyric regimen and vitamin B12 therapy. This is continued throughout the antimicrobial therapy and is an important component as it minimizes cellular damage and facilitates cellular repair. Step 3: Following initiation of the antiporphyric regimen, the first antimicrobial agent is started. I. THERAPEUTIC REGIMEN FOR SECONDARY PORPHYRIA Systemic/chronic chlamydial infections have been noted to have an associated secondary porphyria. Porphyrins, including water-soluble porphyrins (e.g., delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphyrobilinogen) and fat-soluble porphyrins (e.g., coproporphyrin III and protoporphyrin) may produce clinical episodes of porphyria. The presence of such porphyrins in an individual patient with chronic/systemic chlamydial infection can be confirmed pre- and during therapy by appropriate porphyrin tests such as obtaining 24-hour urine and 24-hour stool specimens for porphyrins. It is recommended that a therapeutic regimen addressing porphyria should be instituted along with the use of antimicrobial agents. This therapeutic regimen is aimed at controlling the chlamydial-associated secondary porphyria that may be present prior to antimicrobial therapy and/or may be triggered or increased during antimicrobial therapy of the chlamydial infection. This "porphyric reaction" to antimicrobial therapy should be recognized as such and differentiated from an expected cytokine-mediated immune response. Specific measures for the therapy of porphyria as derived from published medical literature on porphyria are employed and include:1. High Carbohydrate Diet Approximately 70% of the daily caloric intake should be in the form of complex carbohydrates such as those found in bread, potato, rice, and pasta. The remaining 30% of calories in protein and fat ideally should be in the form of white fish or chicken. 2. High Oral Fluid Intake Drink plenty of oral fluids in the form of water (e.g., bicarbonated water or "sports-drinks" [water with glucose and salts]). This helps flush water-soluble porphyrins. Moreover, dehydration concentrates porphyrins and makes patients more symptomatic. The color of the urine should always be almost clear rather than dark yellow. 3. Avoid Red Meats Red meats, including beef and dark turkey as well as tuna and salmon contain tryptophan and should be avoided as much as possible. 4. Avoid Milk Products Milk products contain lactose and lactoferrin, both of which should be avoided as much as possible. 5. Glucose, Sucrose and Fructose Glucose is an important source of cellular energy: cellular energy is reduced with chlamydial infections. Increasing the availability of glucose provides optimal conditions for the cells to produce energy. However, sucrose is not the best way to increase the glucose availability. Sucrose is a mixture of glucose and fructose. Fructose is the sugar contained in fruit. Because high levels of fructose act as a signal to the liver to store glycogen, an excess of fructose may temporarily reduce the availability of glucose at the cellular level. Fructose should be avoided as much as possible. Instead, "sports-drinks" containing glucose (as well as containing important cations/anions) can be used. Glucose tablets also can be used. 6. Avoid Alcohol. Alcohol is a well-known aggravator of porphyria and should be avoided as much as possible.Vitamins/Antioxidants/Supplements 7. B-Complex Vitamins Glucose is needed by host cells that are infected by chlamydiae. The availability of glucose to the host is assisted by taking B-complex vitamins. These include folic acid (400 mcg twice per day), vitamin B-1 (thiamin 10 mg twice per day), vitamin B-2 (riboflavin 10 mg twice per day), vitamin B-5 (pantothenate 100 mg twice per day), vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine 100 mg twice per day or pyridoxal-5 phosphate 25 mg twice per day), and vitamin B-12 (5000 mcg sublingual three to six per day). 8. Antioxidants Antioxidants and related agents should be taken twice per day. These should include vitamins C (1 gram twice per day) and E (400 units twice per day) as well as L-carnitine (500 mg twice per day), ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10; 30 mg twice per day), biotin (5 mg twice per day), and alpha-lipoic acid (400 mg twice per day). Bioflavinoids (also called proanthocyanidins of which pygnoginol and quercetin are two examples) are very effective antioxidants. Selenium (100 mcg twice per day) should be taken with the vitamin E. L-Glutamine (2 - 4 grams twice per day), querceten (400 - 500 mg twice per day), glucosamine (750 - 1000 mg two or three times per day) and chondroitin sulfate (250 - 500 mg twice per day) should also be included.Antiporphyrinic Drugs 9. Benzodiazapine Drugs The specific benzodiazapine drugs used depends, in part, on the symptoms. For example, if panic attacks are the problem, xanax (0.5 mg three or four times per day) can be used. If sleeping is a problem, restoril (30 mg at night) can be used. 10. Hydroxychloroquine Hydroxychloroquine (100 - 200 mg once or twice per day) is often used to treat porphyria. For patients with symptoms of porphyria, a single 100 mg dose of hydroxychloroquine may be tried. If this trial dose relieves the symptoms, hydroxychloroquine may be continued. The hydroxychloroquine dose must be adjusted for each patient. This is done by increased the dose slowly, starting with 100 mg every other day, then slowly increasing to a maximum dose of no more than 200 mg twice per day. Most patients do well on 100 mg once per day. Visual/eye exams should be done periodically as per manufacturerís recommendations (See PDR).Miscellaneous 11. Oral Activated Charcoal Activated charcoal absorbs fat-soluble porphyrins. Treatment with oral activated charcoal, which itself is nonabsorbable, binds these porphyrins in the gastrointestinal tract and hence prevents them from being reabsorbed in the small intestine. Start with 2 grams (eight 250 mg capsules) of activated charcoal taken three times per day on an empty stomach (i.e., 2 hours after and 2 hours before a meal). Gradually increase this to 4 grams taken three times per day. Much more activated charcoal can be safely taken; up to 20 grams six time a day for nine months has been taken without any adverse side effects. It is important that this charcoal be taken on a completely empty stomach without any food, vitamins, or medications taken within 2 hours before or 2 hours after charcoal ingestion as the charcoal may absorb the food, vitamins, or drugs as well as the porphyrins. Activated charcoal can be obtained from <puritanspride.com>.II. THERAPEUTIC REGIMEN FOR VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY Many patients with systemic/chronic chlamydial infection appear to have a subtle and unrecognized vitamin B12 deficiency at the cellular level. This functional B12 deficiency can be documented in an individual patient by obtaining both a vitamin B12 level (usually normal or low) and serum homocysteine and methylmalonate levels (one or both of these metabolites will be elevated). This vitamin B12 deficiency can corrected by high-dose vitamin B12 therapy as follows: 1. Vitamin B12 Therapy Prior to Chlamydial Therapy Adults normally have approximately 3,000 mcg of vitamin B12 in body stores, mostly in the liver. Initial vitamin B12 therapy before chlamydial therapy includes replacement therapy for any vitamin B12 deficit in these body stores. Therefore, over the first several days of antiporphyrin therapy, 6,000 mcg of parental (intramuscular or subcutaneous) vitamin B12 is given. For each of the next 3 weeks, 6,000 mcg of parental vitamin B12 is given once per week. 2. Vitamin B12 Therapy During Chlamydial Therapy Chlamydial antimicrobial therapy is associated with increased need for vitamin B12. Therefore, 6,000 mcg of parental vitamin B12 (3,000 mcg in each anterior thigh) is given once per week while the patient is receiving antimicrobial therapy for systemic/chronic chlamydial infection. This is in addition to the 5,000 mcg of sublingual vitamin B12 taken three times each day. 3. Vitamin B12 Therapy Post Chlamydial Therapy Following the completion of antimicrobial therapy of systemic/chronic chlamydial infection, the vitamin B12 and serum homocysteine/methylmalonate levels should be rechecked. If the methylmalonate level remains elevated, it suggests a continued vitamin B12 deficiency. Oral therapy with 5,000 mcg of sublingual cobalamin three times per day should be continued. After several months, 6,000 mcg of parental vitamin B12 may be given as a therapeutic trial. If the patientís energy is not increased by the parental dose, continued therapy with sublingual vitamin B12 is probably adequate. Periodic trials of parental vitamin B12 can be used to assess the sublingual therapy.For years, vitamin B12 languished as the vitamin that cures anemia. Hardly any research was done into what this vitamin could do for non-anemic people. It turns out that it may do a lot. New studies show that the right amount of B12 can protect against dementia, boost immune function, maintain nerves, regenerate cells and more. B12 is in the news because it lowers homocysteine and protects against atherosclerosis. It's also vital for maintaining methylation reactions that repair DNA and prevent cancer. One of the crucial areas for B12 is the brain. It's not surprising that people with B12 deficiency develop mental disorders. The vitamin is crucial for the synthesis or utilization of important neuro-factors including monoamines, melatonin and serotonin. In addition, B12 is absolutely critical for the function and maintenance of nerves themselves. B12 is needed for methylation reactions that maintain these cells, and enable them to function. B12 contributes to brain function by lowering homocysteine. Homocysteine is a toxic by-product of methionine metabolism that can damage neurons. Importantly, homocysteine interferes with the methylation reactions critical for brain function. Studies show that people with elevated homocysteine can't think.
How Cpn causes porphyria: pdfs of Stratton/Mitchell ArticlesHow Cpn causes porphyria: pdfs of Stratton/Mitchell Articles
Two downloadable pdf files are included here for those who want more detail on Cpn and secondary porphyria. 1) This link will download an important and classic article by Dr.'s Stratton & Mitchell called
The Pathogenesis of Systemic Chlamydial Infections: Theoretical Considerations of Host Cell Energy Depletion and Its Metabolic Consequences
Download Alternate DownloadIt explains in detail the impact of Cpn cellular parasitism on ATP depletion and on heme synthesis and resulting porphyria. 2) This link will download an excerpt from Stratton & Mitchell's Patent #6,884,784 specifically on the cellular biology of Cpn and porphyria. A succinct and clear explanation for those of us who are biology geeks.
Excerpt from Stratton & Mitchell's Patent #6,884,784 on Cpn & Secondary Porphyria
Secondary Porphyria in Cpn: Extracts from Stratton/Mitchell PatentSecondary Porphyria in Cpn: Extracts from Stratton/Mitchell Patent
I thought this should be available to Cpnhelp users. This is extracted from the Mitchell/Stratton (Vanderbilt) patent:Secondary Porphyria In Cpn• Extracted and edited from: US Patent Issued on June 29, 2004• Chlamydia is a parasite of normal energy production in infected eukaryotic cells. The energy shortage also causes the host cell mitochondria to attempt to synthesize certain critical enzymes involved in energy production in order to increase energy production. The energy (ATP) shortage produced by Cpn infection results in incomplete heme production and resulting porphyrins.Because Chlamydia also prevents this synthesis from completing, these enzyme's precursors, called porphyrins, build up in cell and often escape into the intracellular [mileau] milieu. Porphyrins readily form free-radicals, that, in turn, damage cells. Thus, there is an obligate secondary porphyria that accompanies many chlamydial infections. • Impact of porphyrins on the body:• Inadequate energy- Host cells have insufficient energy available for their normal functioning. • Neurotoxicity- Porphyrins are highly neurotoxic and produce oxidative damage to cells.• Tissue damage from oxidation- If these reactive oxygen species (porphyrins) are released into the extracellular space, as seen in acute porphyria, autooxidation of surrounding tissue may result. … Reactive oxygen species have been noted to disrupt membrane lipids, cytochrome P-450 (impairing metabolism of drugs and toxins) and DNA structure (increasing cancer risk).• Impairment of liver function- When hepatic cells are infected with Chlamydia species, the decreased energy in the host cell does not allow heme biosynthesis to go to completion and porphyrins in the liver/entero-hepatic circulation are increased. When hepatic cells are infected with Chlamydia species, the decreased energy in the host cell does not allow heme biosynthesis to go to completion and porphyrins in the liver/entero-hepatic circulation are increased. When the chlamydial infection involves hepatic cells, the use of any pharmacologic agents that are metabolized by cytochrome P-450 in the liver will increase the need for cytochrome P-450, which is a heme-based enzyme. Hence, the biosynthesis of heme in the liver becomes increased (resulting in worsening of the porphyria!). • Chronic oxidative stress- the accumulation of porphyrinogens/porphyrins in human tissues and body fluids produces a condition of chronic system overload of oxidative stress with long term effects particularly noted for neural, hepatic and renal tissue.. If reactive oxygen species are released into the extracellular space, as seen in acute porphyria, autooxidation of surrounding tissue may result. Long term effects particularly noted for neural, hepatic and renal tissue.• Glucose disruption—described under treatment below.• Accumulation in tissues and cells of porphyrins- The clinical result of the intracellular and extracellular accumulation of porphyrins, if extensive, is a tissue/organ specific porphyria which produces many of the classical manifestations of hereditary porphyria. • (symptoms of porphyria here)• Sub-clinical B-12 deficiency (i.e. not measurable by blood levels of B-12). The pathogenesis of chronic/systemic chlamydial infection is unique in that the intracellular infection by this parasite results in a number of … unrecognized concomitant … metabolic/autoimmune disorders including secondary porphyria with associated autoantibodies against the porphyrins. Cross reaction with Vitamin B12 can result in a subclinical autoimmune-mediated Vitamin B12 deficiency. These associated disorders often require diagnosis and preventive and/or specific adjunctive therapy.• As the chlamydial-infected host cells lyse, as happens in the normal life cycle of Chlamydia, the intracellular porphyrins are released and result in a secondary porphyria. It also has been noted that any host cell infected with Chlamydia species has an increased amount of intracellular porphyrins that are released when antimicrobial agents kill the microorganism.• …chlamydial-associated secondary/obligatory porphyria, symptoms of which can actually increase during antimicrobial therapy of the chlamydial infection. This porphyric reaction to antimicrobial therapy should be recognized as such and differentiated from the expected cytokine-mediated immune response precipitated by antigen dump during anti-chlamydial therapy.• • Diagnosis• The diagnosis of chlamydial-associated secondary porphyria may be difficult as the porphyria may be minimal and tissue-specific.• The measurement of 24 hour urine porphyrins is not sensitive enough in every case of chlamydial infection to detect the secondary porphyria caused by chlamydial infection.• There may not be an abnormal amount of porphyrinogen precursors and porphyrins in the blood, urine, or stool.• • D. Reducing Porphyrin Levels• Therapy for this secondary porphyria, which is adjunct to anti-chlamydial therapy, involves at least three strategies: a) Supplement the cellular energy supply to mitigate cell malfunction and the formation of porphyrins; b) reduce the levels of systemic porphyrins; and c) mitigate the harmful effects of the porphyrins.• Dietary and pharmaceutical methods can be used to reduce systemic porphyrin levels (both water-soluble and fat-soluble).• It is recommended that a patient suffering from porphyria avoid milk products. Milk products contain lactose and lactoferrin, and have been empirically shown to make symptoms of porphyria worse.• Patients should also avoid Red meats, including beef, dark turkey, tuna and salmon as they contain tryptophan which worsens porphyria (see below).• Glucose disruptiono Red meats, including beef, dark turkey, tuna and salmon, contain [tryprophan] tryptophan. Increased levels of tryptophan in the liver inhibit the activity of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase with consequent disruption of gluconeogenesis. This accounts for the abnormal glucose tolerance seen in porphyria. o (Ed: in addition to which, Cpn induces its host cell to absorb more glucose from the blood stream so it can produce more ATP. In wide spread Cpn infection this can produce low blood sugar more rapidly than otherwise, such as when patients fast or skip meals).• Intake of glucose gives short term energy boost to depleted cells (increasing ATP and lessening porphyrin production), and in the case of infected liver cells (major producer of heme in the body) glucose shuts down further immediate heme production.• Plenty of oral fluids in the form of bicarbonated water or "sports drinks" (i.e., water with glucose and salts) should be incorporated into the regimen. This flushes water-soluble porphyrins from the patient's system. Drinking seltzer water is the easiest way to achieve this goal. The color of the urine should always be almost clear instead of yellow. It is noted that dehydration concentrates prophyrins and makes patients more symptomatic.• Activated charcoal can be daily administered in an amount sufficient to absorb fat-soluble porphyrins from the enterohepatic circulation. Treatment with activated oral is charcoal, which is nonabsorbable and binds porphyrins in the gastrointestinal tract and hence interrupts their enterohepatic circulation, has been associated with a decrease of plasma and skin porphyrin levels. Charcoal should be taken between meals and without any other oral drugs or the charcoal will absorb the food or drugs rather than the porphyrins. For those who have difficulty taking the charcoal due to other medications being taken during the day, the charcoal can be taken all at one time before bed. Taking between 2 and 20 grams, preferably at least 6 grams (24×250 mg capsules) of activated charcoal per day (Perlroth et al., Metabolism, 17:571-581 (1968)) is recommended. Much more charcoal can be safely taken; up to 20 grams six times a day for nine months has been taken without any side effects.• For severe porphyria, chelating and other agents may be administered, singularly or in combination, to reduce levels of porphyrins in the blood. Examples of chelating agents include but are not limited to Kemet (succimer; from about 10 mg/kg to about 30 mg/kg); ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA); BAL (dimercaprol; e.g., 5 mg/kg maximum tolerated dosage every four hours), edetate calcium disodium (e.g., from about 1000 mg/m2 to about 5000 mg/m2 per day; can be used in combination with BAL); deferoxamine mesylate (e.g., from about 500 mg to about 6000 mg per day); trientine hydrochloride (e.g., from about 500 mg to about 3 g per day); panhematin (e.g., from about 1 mg/kg to about 6 mg/kg per day), penacillamine. Quinine derivatives, such as but limited to hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine and quinacrine, should be administered to the patient daily at a dosage of from about 100 mg to about 400 mg per day, preferably about 200 mg once or twice per day with a maximum daily dose of 1 g. Hydrochloroquine is most preferred. The mechanism of action of hydroxychloroquine is thought to involve the formation of a water-soluble drug-porphyria complex which is removed from the liver and excreted in the urine (Tschudy et al., Metabolism, 13:396-406 (1964); Primstone et al., The New England Journal of Medicine, 316:390-393 (1987)).• E. Mitigating the Effects of Porphyrins• Antioxidants at high dosages (preferably taken twice per day) help to mitigate the effects of free radicals produced by porphyrins. Examples of suitable antioxidants include but are not limited to Vitamin C (e.g., 1 gram per dosage; 10 g daily maximum); Vitamin E (e.g., 400 units per dosage; 3000 daily maximum); L-Carnitine (e.g., 500 mg per dosage; 3 g daily maximum); coenzyme Q-10 (uniquinone (e.g., 30 mg per dosage; 200 mg daily maximum); biotin (e.g., 5 mg per dosage; 20 mg daily maximum); lipoic acid (e.g., 400 mg per dosage; 1 g daily maximum); selenium (e.g., 100 µg per dosage; 300 µg daily maximum); gultamine (e.g., from 2 to about 4 g per dosage); glucosamine (e.g., from about 750 to about 1000 mg per dosage); and chondroitin sulfate (e.g., from about 250 to about 500 mg per dosage).• The above-mentioned therapeutic diets can be combined with traditional or currently recognized drug therapies for porphyria. In one embodiment, benzodiazapine drugs, such as but not limited to valium, klonafin, flurazepam hydrochloride (e.g., Dalmanc™, Roche) and alprazolam (e.g., Xanax), can be administered. Preferably, sedatives, such as alprazolam (e.g., Xanax; 0.5 mg per dosage for 3 to 4 times daily), can be prescribed for panic attacks and flurazepam hydrochloride (e.g., Dalmane™, Roche or Restoril™ (e.g., 30 mg per dosage)) can be prescribed for sleeping. The rationale is based upon the presence of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in high quantities in phagocytic cells known to produce high levels of radical oxygen species. A protective role against hydrogen peroxide has been demonstrated for peripheral benzodiazipine receptors. This suggests that these receptors may prevent mitochondria from radical damages and thereby regulate apoptosis in the hematopoietic system. Benzodiazepines have also been shown to interfere with the intracellular circulation of heme and porphyrinogens (Scholnick et al., Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 1973, 61:226-232). This is likely to decrease porphyrins and their adverse effects. The specific benzodiazipine will depend on the porphyrin-related symptoms.• The rationale for benzodiazepines) is based upon the presence of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in high quantities in phagocytic cells known to produce high levels of radical oxygen species. A protective role against hydrogen peroxide has been demonstrated for peripheral benzodiazipine receptors. This suggests that these receptors may prevent mitochondria from radical damages and thereby regulate apoptosis in the hematopoietic system. Benzodiazepines have also been shown to interfere with the intracellular circulation of heme and porphyrinogens (Scholnick et al., Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 1973, 61:226-232). This is likely to decrease porphyrins and their adverse effects. The specific benzodiazipine will depend on the porphyrin-related symptoms.• Cimetidine can also be administered separately or in combination with benzodiazepine drugs. Cimetidine has been shown to effectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals although it is an ineffective scavenger for superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. Cimetidine appears to be able to bind and inactivate iron, which further emphasizes its antioxidant capacity. Cimetidine also is an effective scavenger for hypochlorous acid and monochloramine, which are cytotoxic oxidants arising from inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils. Cimetidine thus would be expected to be useful for the therapy of free-radical-mediated oxidative damage caused by chlamydial porphyria. Recent studies in Japan have found that cimetadine is effective for treating porphyria. The recommended amount of cimetadine is about 400 mg once or twice per day.
I've read several posts on Porphyria, including the interview with Dr. Stratton (I think is who it was). I'm still left wondering what I can do to combat porphyria as I definitely have it going on and it's something I want to deal with.As far as I know, the only thing that can be done is the following...
Some more thoughts on porphyria and Cpn
Some more thoughts on porphyria and Cpn
Because it has been such a prominent part of my own illness, I've done quite a bit of research on porphyria. Almost everything in the literature refers to primary genetic porphyria, though there are a few references to secondary (non-genetic) porphyria caused by various liver-destroying processes.Primary porphyria is a genetic disease in which there is a deficiency of one of eight different enzymes, each of which is required to effect one of the eight sequential steps required to synthesis the iron-containing protein heme.
Neurovisceral Features of Acute Porphyria AttacksNeurovisceral Features of Acute Porphyria Attacks Jim K Sat, 2007-12-22 10:11
Book excerpt from: HERE